ASSESSMENT - PAIN EKG - R
BACK PAIN RED FLAGS
- Weight loss, prior history of cancer, nocturnal or rest pain, age older than 50 years, recent trauma, fever and chills, history of injection drug use, chronic corticosteroid therapy, difficulty urinating, bowel or bladder incontinence, and neurologic deficits such as saddle anesthesia, perianal or perineal sensory loss, or motor weakness in the extremities.
- There is a common association between spontaneous vertebral fracture and any combination of age older than 70 years, female gender, recent trauma, and prolonged corticosteroid use.
- There is a moderate to highly significant predictive value for age older than 50 years, history of prior cancer, unexplained weight loss, and failure of conservative therapy in identifying spinal malignancy.